Fundamentals of c language pdf free download

24.09.2021 By Scott Moser

fundamentals of c language pdf free download

  • (PDF) Fundamentals of C Programming CS -Introduction to Programming | Eme Oigo - proximaparada.co
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  • Extensively revised from a successful th Foundations of Analytical Chemistry. This book offers a completely new approach to learning and teaching the fundamentals of analytical chemistry. It summarizes basic concepts of the field on the basis of slides. Each of the nine chapters offers the following features: - Introduction: Summary.

    General scheme. Teaching objectives. Fundamentals of Business. Fundamentals of Business, 2nd Edition is an page open education resource intended to serve as a no-cost, faculty customizable primary text for one-semester undergraduate introductory business courses.

    It covers the following topics in business: Teamwork; economics; ethics; entrepreneurship; business ownership, management, and leadership; organi Introduction to the Modeling and Analysis of Complex Systems. Complex systems are systems made of a large number of microscopic components interacting with each other in nontrivial ways.

    Many real-worl Principles of Programming Languages. A header file does not include any implementation of the functions declared. The C preprocessor is used to insert the function download into the source files and the actual library file which contains the function implementation is linked at link time. There are prewritten libraries of functions such as pr int f to help us.

    Some of these functions are very complex and long. Use of prewritten functions makes the programmers life easier and they also allow faster and error free development since functions are used and tested by many programmers development. The function pr int f is embedded into a statement whose end is marked by a semicolon.

    Semicolon indicates the end of pdf statement to the compiler. The C language is case sensitive and all C programs are generally written in lowercase letters. Some of the special words may be written in uppercase letters. Throughout this course students will be using Linux as the development platform. A modified version of the Hello World language is given next.

    The keyword int is added before the function m a in. The keyword int indicates that m a in function returns an integer value. Most functions return some value and sometimes this return value indicates the success or the failure of fundamentals function. Because function m a in returns an integer value, there must language a statement that indicates what this value is.

    Use your favorite text editor in Linux and type the above program. Save it as H e lloW free ld. Then use the shell and go to the directory that you have saved your source file. Use the command gcc H e lloW or ld. If there are no errors an pdf file will be created in the same free with the default file name a.

    To execute the program at the prompt type. It may be a single character or a sequence of characters to form a single item. Tokens can be classified as keywords, literals, identifiers, operators, etc. Literals can be further classified as numeric constants, character constants and string constants. Language download tokens used by a programming language are called keywords.

    Keywords are also called as reserved words. They are defined as a part fundamentals the programming language therefore cannot be used for anything else. Any user defined literals or identifiers should not conflict with keywords or compiler directives. Table 2.

    Numeric constants are an uninterrupted sequence of digits possibly containing a period. Numerical values such asand Identifiers are also referred as names. An identifier must begin with a letter and the rest can be letters, digits or underscores.

    Identifies are case free therefore the identifier a bc is different from Languahe or Abc. Sometimes a C compiler may consider only the first 32 characters in an identifier. While defining identifiers programmers should follow some of the naming standards for better readability of the program.

    Operators donload used with operands to build expressions. Operators will be discussed in chapter 3. Figure 2. It has two parentheses which contains the string to be displayed, enclosed in quotation ppdf. Consider Fundqmentals It displays two successive statements using the pr int f function. Therefore the modified program can either be Program Exercise 2.

    List of such escape codes are given in Table 2. Note that each of these escape codes represents one character, ffree they consists of two characters. Question mark? Storage representations and machine instructions to handle data types differ form machine to machine. The variety of data types available allows the programmer to select the type appropriate to the needs of the application language well as the machine.

    C supports a number of data types; if they are not enough programmers can also define their own data free. C supports three classes of data types: 1. Primitive or basic data types — these are the fundamental data types supported by the language. These can be classified pdf integer types, floating point types and character types. User defined data types — based on the fundamental data types users can define their rundamentals data types.

    These include type defined data types using t y pe de f keyword and enumerated types using e n u m keyword. Derived data types — programmers can derive data types such as arrays, structures, unions and pointers by combining several data types together. Many of these data types can be further extended as long int and long double. Each of laanguage data types requires different storage capacities and has different range of fundamentals depending on the hardware see Table 2.

    Character cha r type is considered as an integer type and actual characters are represented based on their ASCII value. The modifiers are signe dunsigne dlong and fundamentas or t. Except with void type, the modifiers can be used with all the basic data types as shown in Table 2.

    It is a memory location that can hold a value of a certain data type. Programmers refer to a variable by its name identifier so that it can be accessed during the course of the program. Programmers cannot use any of the keywords as variable names. The most important restriction on using a variable in C is that they have to be declared at the beginning of the program.

    Multiple variables belonging to the same data type can be defined as separate set of expressions or by listing variable names one after the other should be separated by a coma sign. In C, an uninitialised variable can contain any garbage value therefore the programmer language make sure all the variables are initialised before using them in any of the expressions.

    The C language supports two types of constants; namely declared constants and defined constants. Declared constants are more common and they are defined using the keyword con st. With the con st prefix the programmer can declare constants with a specific data type exactly as it is done with variables.

    These are called defined constants. Following expression illustrates the use of the de fine pre-processor directive define pi 3. Each data type has to be used with pr int f function in a specific format. In order to display the correct values using the pr int f function conversion specifiers should be used.

    They are fundamentals to instruct the compiler about download type of numbers appearing in the program, which in turn determines the suitable memory storage locations. Incorrect use of format characters would result in wrong outputs. Run your program and observe the output. Execute the program and observe the outputs.

    This can be achieved by using modifiers along with the format characters in order to specify the required field width. The sca n f is a similar function that is used to read data into a program. The sca n f function accepts formatted input from the keyboard. The sca n f function uses the same set of formatting characters pdf the pr int f function to describe the type of expected input.

    The supplied input values can be separated either by pressing En t e r key or by leaving a blank space between the numbers. Both of the following inputs are valid for Program The sca n f function also supports mixed types of input data. In certain cases you may want to separate your inputs using a commarather than using the En t e r key or a blank space.

    This download require use of an additional function like the pr int f in order to display a message as a prompt for the user reminding the required data item.

    The operators define how the variables and literals in the expression will be manipulated. They will be introduced later under relevant sections. The assignment operator is used to assign a value to a variable. The assignment operation always takes place from right to left.

    However in some cases there is a difference. Consider the following segment of code. Downlkad 3. Table 3. Parentheses can also be used to change the order of evaluation and it has the highest precedence. It is recommended to use parentheses to simplify expressions without depending on the precedence. The logical operators are used to connect relational expressions together using the rules of formal logic.

    NOT 3. These operators are lower in precedence than arithmetic operators. In other downkoad this free is evaluated as TRUE if both the conditions are met. C supports six bitwise operators and they are listed downlpad Table 3. Fundakentals precedence is lower than arithmetic, relational and logical operators see Table 3.

    Example pdf. ASCII values of the uppercase and lowercase characters have a difference of At the bit level, only difference between the two characters is the 5th fundamental. Bitwise XOR operation can be used to invert bits. This is the concept used in Program 3.

    Shifting a binary number to left by one bit will multiply it by free while shifting it to right by one bit will divide it by 2. Fundamentals the shift operation the final result should also be a 8-bit number, therefore any additional bits are ppdf and missing bits will be filled with zero. However the following rule will reduce any confusion.

    When operators have the same precedence an expression is evaluated left to right. Highest Left to right! In real life, a programme usually needs to change the sequence of execution according to some conditions. In C, there are many control structures that are used to handle conditions and the resultant language. This chapter introduces if- e lse and fundamentals it ch constructs.

    The resulting statement is executed if the condition is evaluated as TRUE. Note that there is no semicolon ; after the condition expression. Program 4. Example 4. Then display the final amount that the customer has to pay. Then the final amount needs to be displayed. All these are done only if the condition is TRUE.

    So instructions which compute discount and final amount should be executed as a block. Another if clause is required dwonload check whether the amount is downpoad than The second if clause can be used before or after the first existing if clause. In such cases, the if clause can be used to check the TRUE condition and act upon it.

    In example 4. Blocks make it possible to use many statements rather than just one. Then the Program Fundamentalz 4. In such cases the conditions and their associated statements can be arranged in a construct that takes the form: if condit ion - 1 st a t e m e nt - 1 ; e lse if condit ion- 2 st a t e m panguage nt - 2 ; e lse if condit vree 3 st a t e m e nt - 3 ; … e lse st a t e m e nt - n ; The above construct is referred as the if-else-if ladder.

    The different conditions are evaluated starting from the top of the ladder and whenever a condition is evaluated as TRUE, eownload corresponding dowjload s are executed and the rest of the construct it skipped. Marks obtained by a student can only be in one of the ranges.

    Therefore if-else-if ladder can be used download implement following program. These are called compound relational tests. Due to the top download execution of the if-else-if ladder Program If m a r k s is not greater than 75, the next fundamentalss is evaluated to see whether it is greater than If the second expression is not pdf either, the program evaluates the third expression and so on until it finds a TRUE condition.

    If it cannot find a TRUE expression statement s after the e lse keyword will get executed. This can be accomplished by two approaches; using compound relational tests or using nested conditions. In nesting you must be careful downkoad keep track of different if s and corresponding e lse s. In this example the e lse corrosponds to the second if.

    To reduce any confusion braces can be used to simplify the source code. Write a program to calculate the acceleration. In the program we implement users can input t any values for u, v and t.

    –– ‘C’ has an equivalent integer value while “C” does not. Declaration of Variables •• There are two purposes: It tells the compiler what the variable name isIt tells the compiler what the variable name is.. 2. It specifies what type of data the variable wilIt specifies what type of data the variable will hol proximaparada.co Size: KB. Download file PDF Read file. Download file PDF. applications are written in the C language. This presentation is about fundamentals of C concepts. Read proximaparada.coted Reading Time: 4 mins. Free download book Fundamentals of C++ Programming, Richard L. Halterman. Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T Bell Labs created C++ in the mid s. C++ is an extension of the programming l.

    However, to find the correct acceleration t has to be non zero and positive since we cannot go back in time and a number should not be divided by zero. So our program should make sure it accepts only the correct inputs. The Program It has the form: condit ion? Conditional operator can be used to implement simple if-else constructs.

    However use of conditional operator is not recommended in modern day programming since it may reduce the readability of the source code. The syntax of the switch construct is d from if-else construct.

    fundamentals of c language pdf free download

    The objective is to check several possible constant values for an expression. Switch evaluates the control variable and first checks if its value is equal to const a nt - 1 ; if it is the case, then it executes the statement s following that line until it reaches the br e a k keyword. When the br e a k keyword is found no more cases will be considered and the control is transferred out of the switch structure to next part of the program.

    If the value of the expression fundamehtals not equal to const a nt - 1 it will fundamentals the fundamentalz of const a nt - 2. If they are equal it will execute relevant statement s. This process continuous until it finds a matching value. If a matching value is not found among any ca se s, the statement s given after the de fa ult keyword will be executed.

    The control variable of the switch must be of the type intlong or cha r any other datatype is not allowed. Then display pdf lnguage. A sample run of fundqmentals program should be similar to the following: Enter number 1: 20 Enter number 2: 12 Mathematical Operation 1 - Add 2 - Subtract 3 - Multiply 4 - Divide Enter your preference: 2 Answer : 8.

    These repetitive constructs are called downloda or control structures. The C language supports three constructs; namely freew hile and do- w hile loops. Pd of this chapter introduces these control structures. The general form of a for loop is: for count e r - init ia liza t ion; condit ion; incr e m e nt download a t e m e nt s ; The construct includes the initialization of the counter, the condition and the increment.

    The main function lamguage the for loop is to repeat the statement s while the condition remains true. The condition should check for a specific value of the counter. In addition it provides ways to initialize the counter and increment or pdr the counter. Therefore the for loop is designed to perform a repetitive action for a pre-defined number of times.

    The second expression inside the language determines the number of repetitions of the loop. You may also decrement the counter depending on the requirement, but you have to use suitable control expression and an initial value. Therefore the pr int f function gets executed. At this point the first round of the loop is completed. Then pxf the second round the expression is evaluated again.

    Therefore the pr in t f function gets executed for the second time.

    This process continues for another 2 rounds. Then the loop will terminate and the control is given to rest of the instructions which are outside the loop. Exercise 5. Example 5. By adding 2 to an even number the next even number free be found. Therefore the counter should be incremented by 2 in each round.

    Each of the three parts inside the parentheses of the f or statement is optional. You may omit any of them as long as your program contains the necessary statements to take care of the loop execution. Even the statement s inside the loop are optional.

    It is repeated continuously unless you include od suitable condition inside the loop block to terminate the execution. In this program both inputs should be given from the keyboard. Therefore at the time of development both initial value and the final value are not known. The programmer has to take care about the other elements initialization and free. The loop continues as long as the expression is TRUE.

    You need to make sure that the expression will stop at some point otherwise it will become an ufndamentals loop. The w hile loop is suitable in cases where the exact number of repetitions is not known in advance. Hello World! Language Program In such cases use of w hile loop is desirable than the for loop.

    In program The fundamentals inside the w hile loop check whether the counter is not fundmentals to zero num! Next we need to make sure that the program loops only 5 times. That is achieved by decrementing the counter n u m - - at each round. If the counter is not decremented the program will loop forever. Modify Program The only difference between the downooad w hile loop and other loops is that in the do- w hile loop the condition comes after the statement s.

    User can enter any number languagd download and the program will add them up. It will terminate only if zero or any negative number ffee entered. In order to calculate the total or terminate the program there should be at least one input from the keyboard.

    Therefore in this type of a program lagnuage w hile loop is recommended than the w hile loop. Then based on the user selection it should display the correct message. After displaying the correct message it should again display the menu. The program should exit when the user enter 0. In summary, the for loop is recommended language cases where the number of repetitions is known in advance.

    The pdf hile loop is recommended for cases where the number of repetitions are unknown or unclear during the development process. The do- w hile loop is recommended for cases where the loop to be executed needs to run at least once regardless of the condition.

    However, each ;df of loop oof be interchanged download the other two types by including proper control mechanisms. You can nest loops of any kind inside another to any depth you want. However having large number of nesting will reduce the readability of your source code. However the pr int kanguage function does not support displaying text on a row that you have already printed.

    Therefore first you need to fully complete the first row and then you should go pff the next. Therefore the loop which handles printing of individual rows should be the outer loop and one which prints elements within a row columns should be the inner loop. The control will be transferred to the first statement following the loop block.

    If you have nested loops, then the break statement inside one loop transfers the control to the immediate outer loop. The break statement funcamentals be used to terminate an infinite loop fundamentals to force a loop to end before its normal termination. Notice that in this f the for loop is written as a decrement rather than an increment.

    At this point the loop will terminate because of frwe br e a k keyword. The program should allow users to terminate the program at any time by pressing any key before it displays all the messages. The k bhit function is defined in the header file con io.

    Consider the following example. However a number should not be divided by 0. It takes the following form: e x dosnload int e x it - code The exit-code is used by the operating systems and may also be used by the calling program. By convention, an exit-code of 0 indicates a normal exit where as any other value indicates an abnormal exit or an error.

    If a program lamguage to be terminated before vree r e t u r n 0 ; statement in within the m a in function following code can be used: download 0 ; Exercise 5. The program should display all the sine values from 0 to degrees at 5 degrees increments and it should display only 20 rows at a time.

    Using an array we can store five values of type int with a single identifier without having to declare five different variables with a different identifier. Arrays are useful when you store related data items, such as grades received by the students, sine values of a series of angles, etc.

    Like any other variable in C an array must be declared before it is used. The typical declaration of an array is: da t a - t ype a r r a y- na m e [ fundamentals of- e le m e nt s] ; Notice that the array name must not be separated from the square brackets containing the index. When declaring an array, the number of array elements should be constant.

    As arrays are blocks of static memory locations of a given size, off compiler must be able pdf determine exactly how much memory to allocate at compilation time. The following array can hold marks for five subjects. Then in the second loop it computes total of all marks stored in the array and finally it funramentals the average.

    The array that was used in Program It can doanload extended to store marks of many students using a two- dimensional array. Such an array is declared in the following form: da t a - t ype a r r a y- na m e [ size - language ] [ size - 2 lajguage ; You can declare an array to hold marks of students with fo marks of 5 subjects as d the following example: int students[][5]; The first index defines the number of students and the second index defines the number of subjects.

    Initialising marks of the pd student can be performed in the following manner. A two-dimensional array is initialised in the same way. The following statement declares and initialises a two-dimensional array of type int which free the scores of three students in five different tests.

    Calculate the average of each students marks and the average of marks taken by all the students. Therefore functions can be classified as built-in and user defined. A modular program is usually made up of different functions, each one accomplishing a specific task such as calculating the square root or the factorial.

    The first is to introduce the C program-ming language. C is a practical and still-current software tool; it remains one of the most popular programming languages in existence, particularly in areas such as embedded systems. C facilitates writing code that is very efficient and powerful and, given the ubiquity of C compilers, can be easilyFile Size: KB. Download Free PDF. Fundamentals of C Programming CS -Introduction to Programming. Eme Oigo. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 13 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. Download proximaparada.coted Reading Time: 15 mins. Free download book Fundamentals of C++ Programming, Richard L. Halterman. Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T Bell Labs created C++ in the mid s. C++ is an extension of the programming l.

    In general a modular program consists of the m a in fuundamentals followed by set of user language functions as given below: include …… de fine …. It starts with the include directive, followed by the de fine directive if any then followed by the prototypes free functions. The prototype is a declaration of a function used in the program.

    Then comes the program building block which includes the m a in function and implementation of the user defined functions. Some functions may accept certain input parameters pdf as pr int fsome may return a value of a certain data type such as k bhit and some may accept as well as return a value sqr t. Every C program has at least one function, the m a in.

    When a program is executed the m a in is called automatically. The m a in may call other functions and some of them might call other functions. Each function has a unique name fundamentals when the name is encountered while in execution the control fundamengals the program is transferred to the statement s within the function.

    When the function is ended returns the control is resumed to the next statement following the function call. Well designed functions perform a specific and easily understood task. Complicated tasks should be broken down into multiple functions and then each can be called in the proper order.

    Later you can implement the function.

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    The prototype tells the compiler in advance about some characteristics name of the function, return type and parameters of a function. The function name is any legal identifier followed by the function parenthesis without any space in between. If the function does not return a value, the data type is defined as void. The arguments or parameters come inside the parenthesis, preceded by their types and separated by the commas.

    If the function does not any parameters, it is either fundamentals blank or the word void is used inside the parenthesises. Following are some examples for prototypes: void exit int x free int kbhit ; double power double x, double y ; The first function returns no value and it takes an integer argument.

    Second prototype returns an integer value and has no inputs. Third function returns a double value and takes two double values. It starts with function header, which is the same as the function prototype but does not end with a semicolon. The function prototype and the definition must have exactly the same return type, name and parameter list.

    If they do not match the compiler will issue error messages during compilation. Example 7. Implement calculation of circumference and areas as separate functions. As given below: float area int r ; float area float r ; Both these functions calculate the area of a circle given language radius.

    However the first function accepts an integer as the input download the second function accepts a floating point number. Based pdf the type of the given input the pdf dynamically calls the correct function. The expression a r e a floa t r a dius ; converts the integer value to a floating point number this process is called casting before calling the function.

    Although download can have multiple functions with the same name but with different input parameters, you cannot have functions with the same name with a different output parameter. It is also possible to have the same name for functions with different behaviour with different input parameters, however best practices suggest that no two functions should have the same name unless they perform identical tasks.

    In order to avoid errors when using functions, you have to have a clear understanding about the mechanism of passing variables from one function to another. Variables declared within a block are scoped language to that block; they can be accessed only within that block and go out of existence when the execution of the block is completed.

    A variable declared inside a function is called a local variable. Scope of a local variable is limited to the function. Such variables are not seen by any other functions including the m a in function. When you pass a variable to a function such as the variable r a dius in Free This means that the value of the passed variable cannot be changed by any other function.

    Even if you use another variable with the same name in the fundamentals, you still have two local variables isolated from each other. On the other hand you can also define global variables which are accessible from any function within the same source file.

    The global variable can be defined within the program but anywhere outside function block including the m a in function.

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    You can modify its value in either place and read it from another place. A well written C source code should not have any global variables unless lqnguage are specifically required since an accidental change to a global variable may produce fundamentals results. The value passed must be of the declared type.

    If the function definition differs or if you pass a value of a wrong data type you will get a compilation error. Similarly a function with many input parameters can have a default value for language parameter. Exercise 7. Although it may appear a little confusing for a novice programmer fjndamentals are freee powerful tool and handy to use once they are mastered.

    The power of C compared to most other languages lies free proper use of pointers. Computers use memory to store both pdf and values of variables of a program. Each of these memory cells has an address associated with it. Whenever a variable is declared the system allocates some memory to hold the value of the variable.

    Such memory location can be accessed by providing the memory address. Suppose the address of that memory location is Then after executing above expression the memory address should hold Since memory addresses are simple numbers, they can also be assigned to fres variables. Such variables that hold memory addresses are called pointers.

    Therefore a pointer is nothing but a variable that contains an address which is a location of another variable in memory. Therefore in computation even the address of the pointer can be used. The location of a variable in memory is download dependent and therefore the address of a variable is not known directly.

    The fourth pr int f function displays the address of the pointer. Example 8. Strings in C are handled differently than most other languages. A pointer is used to keep track of a text string stored in memory. It will point to the first character of the string. By knowing the beginning address and the length of the string, the program can locate it.

    Pointers can be used to manipulate arrays rather than using an index. The name fundamejtals an array points to the first element of the array. Using files you can save your output data kf and retrieve them later. A file in downoad is a collection of related records, such as student information, marks obtained in an exam, employee salaries, etc.

    Fundakentals connection can be established using the fope n function. Table 9.


    If the file does not exist create a new one. If the file exists it will be overwritten. New data will be added to the end of the file. When you open a file it would be better to make sure that the 6 Structures are used to store records with different data types. If the establishment of a connection is successful the function returns a pointer to the file.

    If an error is encountered while establishing a connection the functions returns N ULL. When all the file processing is over the connection should be closed. Closing the connection is important as it writes any remaining data in the buffer to the output file.

    The function fclose is used to close the file. When a file is successfully closed the function fclose returns a ze r o and any other value indicates an error. Reading Characters from a File To read one character at a time you can use the ge t c function. Example 9. This is my first file In Program Then the expression if fp!

    Then the program continues to read the rest of the characters in the file until it finds the EOF mark. Afterwards the connection to the file is closed using the fclose function.